Banco de Dados de Artigos Internacionais [Criminologia]
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<!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->GISLLESPIE & MCLAUGHLIN. Media and the shaping of public knowledge and attitudes toward crime & punishment. Rethinking: Crime & Punishment, Reino Unido, junho de 2003. Disponível em http://www.rethinking.org.uk/latest/pdf/briefing4.pdf. Acesso em 16 mai 2011. ABSTRACT: This briefing draws on research conducted by the Open University, wich analyses how the media shaes public knowledge about, and attitudes towards, diferent types of sentencing. Focus groups and questionnaires were used to investigate the knowledge gain from crime fiction, documentary-dramas, reconstructions, soaps, chat shows, news, current affairs and documentaries. While this is a small scale study, its finding are of interest to criminal justice practitioners and to the media and suggest some key issues worth further research.
<!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->HUEY, Laura. ‘I’ve seen this on CSI’: Criminal investigators' perceptions about the management of public expectations in the field (Crime, Media, Culture April 2010). ABSTRACT: Police perceptions as to the influence of CSI and similar forensic and/or police procedural television programs on public expectations of the investigative process in the field is the focus of the present study. Through qualitative interviews with 31 members of Canadian police forces, I explore the question of whether police investigative personnel view media representations of their work as negatively influencing public expectations, thereby creating a source of occupational role strain for police officers. What is revealed is that the majority of investigative personnel interviewed have experienced citizen queries and demands attributed to consumption of unrealistic images of police work in television programs. Where a minority of investigators report feelings of frustration due to the role strain associated with having their expert knowledge and work methods questioned, the majority of those interviewed saw such queries as opportunities for educating the public about the realities of policing. KEYWORDS: crime appeal programming, ideal victim, narrative, text-analysis, violence
<!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->SMOLEJ, Mirka. Constructing ideal victims? Violence narratives in Finnish crime-appeal programming (Crime, Media, Culture April 2010) ABSTRACT: This article utilizes Nils Christie’s classic concept of the ideal victim and examines the ways in which crime-appeal programming contributes to the construction of social narratives of victims of violence. Its special focus is on techniques and victim-specific attributes that are used in the Finnish crime-appeal programme, Poliisi-TV, to define victims. The data comprise 21 violence vignettes, which are textually and visually analysed from the perspective of dramaturgy. These narratives represent victims of violence as either survivors or victims. The survivors are portrayed as heroic characters who have found inner strength to carry on with their lives after their victimization, while the victims are presented as depressed and traumatized, and their future is pictured as gloomy and unhopeful. The narratives mediate a strong picture of the hetero-normative nuclear family and the victims of violence represented in the programme are middle-aged, middle-class, financially well-off parents. Victims of violence who are outside the parameters of family, such as marginalized alcoholic men and particularly vulnerable victims, are completely missing from the footage. Some major differences among Finnish and Anglo-American media portrayals are pointed out, and internationally comparative crime media research is called for. KEYWORDS: crime-appeal programming, ideal victim, narrative, text analysis, violence
<!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->LIPPER & WILKINSON. Capturing crime, criminals and the public’s imagination: Assembling Crime Stoppers and CCTV surveillance . (Crime, Media, Culture August 2010). ABTRACT: This article explores Crime Stoppers’ use of CCTV images as a node of a surveillant assemblage via analysis of a sample of Crime Stoppers advertisements deploying CCTV images supplemented by interviews and other qualitative procedures. Advertisements using images are becoming more prevalent and rely on complex textual narratives and the CCTV image format to construct crime for public consumption to generate ‘tips’. The advertisements capture a narrow range of ‘street crime’ to the benefit of private business and to the neglect of pervasive and serious conduct affecting the less powerful. The convergence of Crime Stoppers and CCTV surveillance is found to have unanticipated and ironic consequences regarding deterrence and identification, to befit a form of ‘counter-law’, and to demonstrate potential to harm individuals and visible minorities. Theoretical implications of this analysis for understanding assumptions about the relation between image and the Truth of crime, governance, and surveillance are discussed. KEYWORDS: Crime stoppers, CCTV, Assemblange, media, crime, governance, surveillance, social construction.
<!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]-->CHELIOTS, Leonidas K. The ambivalent consequences of visibility: Crime and prisons in the mass media. (Crime, Media, Culture. August 2010). ABSTRACT: This article aims to demonstrate that, despite their potential for cultivating communitarianism and deliberative democracy on a large scale, the mass media contribute decisively to the formation of punitiveness amongst the public by means of selective semiotic aestheticisation. They overstate the problem of crime; put the blame on marginalised cohorts and level heavy criticism against the administration of prisons purportedly for laxity; issue urgent calls for ever-greater reliance on the use of strict imprisonment by the authorities and the adoption of self-policing measures by local communities and private individuals; and either mute or neutralise the attendant hardships prisoners suffer at the hands of the state. Breaking with discourses of rational linearity, whereby distorted perceptions of criminal danger result in punitive reactions, the claim is made that the imagery of crime and punishment helps audiences resolve at the level of symbolic expression contradictions which remain unconsciously insoluble at the level of everyday life.KEYWORDS: crime, prisons, semiotic aestheticisaton, the unconcious, visibility
<!--[if !supportLists]-->6. <!--[endif]-->BRUIN, Just de. Young people and police series: A multicultural television audience study. (Crime, Media, Culture, December 2010). ABSTRACT: Police series are a main genre of popular television drama in the Netherlands. This article analyses interviews with young people from a range of ethnic backgrounds about the Dutch police series Baantjer and Spangen. Very little audience research has been carried out internationally into crime drama and this study aims to develop insight into how viewers watch and interpret police series. The informants interpreted Dutch police series in two different ways. First, they watched police series with friends or family to play the game of 'whodunit’, drawing on the hermeneutic narrative code. Second, they used the cultural narrative code to talk about experiences regarding crime, the police, racism and cultural difference at school and in the city. Due to their diverse representations Dutch police series offer viewers opportunities to discuss salient themes within Dutch multicultural society. KEYWORDS: crime drama, multicultural society, police series, tevision audiences, young people
<!--[if !supportLists]-->7. <!--[endif]-->BANKS, Mark. Spaces of (in)security: Media and fear of crime in a local context (Crime, Media, Culture. August 2005). ABSTRACT: Reflecting recent efforts to understand fear of crime as a locally situated process (Walklate, 1998; Lupton and Tulloch, 1999; O’Mahony and Quinn, 1999; Sparks, Girling and Loader, 2001), this article analyses the importance of two different ‘local contexts’ for shaping audience interpretation of media crime. The first of these is the home. The integration of media technologies into the moral economy of the household, and textual readings made within the context of a contested ‘politics of the sitting room’ (Morley, 1992), provide a framework for the interpretation of media crime. Second, and of most interest here, senses of community attachment associated with living in a particular locality are judged to shape the meaning and interpretation of media crime. The article draws on interviews with two households in a suburb of Manchester and argues that the impact of media crime must be considered within a framework that takes place seriously, both as a context for everyday action and as a force in shaping community identity and personal and shared senses of fear and (in)security. The article highlights the historical neglect of spatial context in studies of audience reception of media crime and argues for the need to develop more ‘place sensitive’ research into the impact of media discourses on audiences’ fear of crime. KEYWORDS: class, community, fear of crime, Manchester, media
<!--[if !supportLists]-->8. <!--[endif]-->INDEMAUR & ROBERTS. Social issues as media constructions: The case of ‘road rage’ (Crime, Media, Culture. December 2005). ABSTRACT: ‘Road rage’ is a term that became frequently used in the media in the 1990s. While it referred to a wide and imprecise range of behaviours, it appears to have resonated with the desires and concerns of media audiences. In this article we consider the reasons why ‘road rage’ has proved to be such a popular media object and examine the essential question of whether there has been a real increase in a type of crime that could be labelled ‘road rage’. A content analysis is used to measure the degree to which criminal and non-criminal events are captured in ‘road rage’ stories in the media. These results are juxtaposed against the incidence of ‘road rage’ events reported to the police and survey findings on the perceived likelihood of being involved in a ‘road rage’ incident. The sudden appearance and rapid diffusion of road rage as an object of media attention is interpreted using the natural history approach to social problems. The results add to a growing body of findings which can be used to illuminate the trajectory of media interests in regard to ‘new’ crimes. KEYWORDS: media, natural history, road rage.
<!--[if !supportLists]-->9. <!--[endif]-->CHADEE & DITTON. Fear of crime and the media: Assessing the lack of relationship. (Crime, Media, Culture. December 2005). ABSTRACT: A review of available international evidence indicates that crime features regularly in the media. New data shows that this is also true for Trinidad. Elsewhere, it has been shown that newspaper crime news concentrates heavily on infrequently occurring crimes involving sex and/or violence. Crime news on television and radio has not been subject to as much scrutiny, although it has been shown that televised crime drama is noticeably violent. Data from a representative sample of Trinidadian respondents (n = 705) undertaken in 2000 indicate no relationship between media consumption and fear of crime. KEYWORDS: media, fear of crime, survey data, Trinidad
<!--[if !supportLists]-->10. <!--[endif]-->PEELO, Moira. Framing homicide narratives in newspapers: Mediated witness and the construction of virtual victimhood (Crime, Media, Culture. August 2006). ABSTRACT: This article identifies ways in which newspapers invite readers to identify with victims and victimhood as a route to engaging them in ‘human interest’ stories. Within this framing of homicide for readers as ‘mediated witness’, some of the authorial techniques are explored whereby newspapers engage readers in a stylized dialogue that contributes to the construction of public narratives about homicide. It is argued that researchers, as well as working at a macro level, need to research at the micro level of textual analysis when researching media (including visual media) in order to understand the framing that contributes to public narratives; hence there is analysis of techniques of (a) defamiliarization and (b) objectification of homicide victims. These are some of the means by which the reader is placed as witness, both apparently ‘experiencing’ crime for personal consumption yet, publicly, allowed to recover (unlike real victims of major crime). The recognition of a need for micro-level analysis raises questions about the functions of public narratives, particularly in expressing, exploring and containing public or social emotion, in an era in which public responses to crime have been placed at the top of a highly politicized crime agenda. KEYWORDS: emotionality, homicide, mediated witness, narratives, social commentary, victimhood
<!--[if !supportLists]-->11. <!--[endif]--> MASON, Paul. Lies, distortion and what doesn’t work: Monitoring prison stories in the British media (Crime, Media, Culture December 2006). ABSTRACT: This article argues that the populist and highly punitive penal policy in the UK is promoted by media discourses around prison. The combination of over-reporting of violent and sexual crime in the media and fictional constructions of imprisonment has been a highly significant factor in the growth of the prison population in late modernity. Providing a discourse analysis of one month’s UK media output on prison, it argues that through a discourse of dangerousness delivered to a fearful public, prison is constructed unproblematically as a solution to crime, echoing the ‘what works’ mantra of New Labour. The meaning of prison, it argues, is shifted from a place of pain delivery to one which treats and trains. The article further contends that media discourse of the prisoner precludes any rational debate about alternatives to prison. Media representations of incarceration as an institution full of murderers, rapists and paedophiles precludes a long overdue debate about prison suicides, the erosion of prisoners’ rights and the rising number of women and children incarcerated. KEYWORDS: abolition, criminal justice, journalism, media, prison
<!--[if !supportLists]-->12. <!--[endif]--> PENGLASE, Ben. Barbarians on the beach: Media narratives of violence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Crime, Media, Culture December 2007). ABSTRACT: This article examines Brazilian media reports on two incidents in Rio de Janeiro in the 1990s, arguing that reports on these events were turning points in the emergence of a discourse of crime that has come to shape how residents of Rio de Janeiro understand and experience violence. Newspaper and magazine articles on a 1992 beachside mugging incident and the Brazilian army's 1994 occupation of several of Rio's poor neighbourhoods are examined as cultural texts through which violence becomes culturally imaginable and new discourses of social difference emerge. The article shows how reports on crime came to constitute a neo-racist discourse centred on images of infection and the creation of social stigmata according to spatial, and not primarily racial, criteria. The key shift in this discourse of crime is from a hegemonic national narrative that celebrated mixing and transgression to one where social and urban boundaries are increasingly impermeable, and transgression is seen as dangerous and threatening. KEYWORDS: Brazil, crime, Favela, race, violence
<!--[if !supportLists]-->13. <!--[endif]-->WALLACE, Aurora. Things like that don't happen here: Crime, place and real estate in the news. (Crime, Media, Culture December 2008). ABSTRACT: This article investigates the construction of place in crime reporting through bystander quotes in recent crime stories in newspapers from the north-eastern US. These quotes are part of a larger pattern of reporting that highlights environmental features of serenity and peacefulness as antidotes to crime. Against claims that crime in the media is always exaggerated, this research demonstrates how the impact of crime is moderated by declaring it unlikely and by discursively shifting it to other geographic locations. It is argued that crime reporting shares a structural similarity with fictional representations of place found in film, and that this pattern of crime reporting helps to reinforce a suburban consumption ethos. KEYWORDS: crime reporting, newspaper, place, real estate, suburbs
<!--[if !supportLists]-->14. <!--[endif]-->MACHADO & SANTOS. The disappearance of Madeleine McCann: Public drama and trial by media in the Portuguese press. (Crime, Media, Culture August 2009). ABSTRACT: The extraordinary media coverage regarding the disappearance of the British 3-year-old Madeleine McCann emerges as an illustrative example of a ‘public drama’ and ‘trial by media’. This article presents a comparative analysis of the perspectives and narrative devices employed by two Portuguese newspapers in establishing a dialogue with their respective audiences. High-profile mediatized criminal cases have the potential to linger in the public memory and become cultural references which may affect long-term public representations of crime and justice. Our analysis is limited to a sample of representative Portuguese newspapers. We found a basic distinction between ‘quality’ and ‘popular’ press which may be related to inherent differences of their market and implicit audiences. A distanced, neutral and reflexive style of the quality press contrasts with the construction of a sensationalistic narrative by the popular press. The latter provided the audience with a daily dose of vicarious participation in a criminal drama which developed into a trial by media, sustained by a rhetoric that encourages the audience to ‘take sides’. Sensationalist media narratives can potentially undermine the principles of fair trial and the presumption of innocence. But they can also elicit relevant collective energies directed at starting processes of change. KEYWORDS: Madeine McCan, trial by media, public drama
<!--[if !supportLists]-->15. <!--[endif]-->KOHM, Steven A. Naming, shaming and criminal justice: Mass-mediated humiliation as entertainment and punishment. (Crime, Media, Culture August 2009). ABSTRACT: Shame has long been a dubious tool of criminal justice and has been carried on by state authorities in a variety of ways through the ages. However, since the latter part of the 20th century, humiliation has become amplified through the mass media in the name of crime control and entertainment. This article situates mass-mediated humiliation within broader trends in criminal justice and popular culture. While the enactment of humiliation via popular culture works powerfully within prevailing cultural beliefs about crime and criminality, there also exists a subversive possibility that threatens to disrupt the forces that attempt to invoke shame for purposes of profit or social control. The popular American tabloid news magazine, Dateline NBC: To Catch a Predator, is used as an example to highlight the ambiguous cultural place of shame. KEYWORDS: humiliation, internet, predators, media, vigilantim.
<!--[if !supportLists]-->16. <!--[endif]-->MCELROY, Wendy. Media Fails Public in Jackson Case. IN < http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=1242>. Acesso em 16 mai 2011.